Dead birds and cull eggs may be a high-risk source of infectious disease organisms and should therefore be handled and disposed of in an responsible and consistent manner.
- Producers should dispose of mortalities and cull birds and eggs in a manner that is consistent with provincial standards such as incineration or composting.
- Disposal of mortalities and cull eggs on-farm is preferred to off-farm transport.
- All mortalities transported off-farm should be placed in clean disinfected containers and the containers sealed prior to leaving the premises. It is recommended that carcasses be frozen before batch disposal.
- Large numbers of mortalities that result from a disease outbreak should be handled in a manner consistent with industry and government requirements.
Pathogens may also be introduced to your farm or leave your farm through improper handling of manure. Care should therefore be taken to appropriately compost and transport waste.
The following are recommended practices relating to carcass disposal and manure management that enhance biosecurity on non-supply managed poultry operations:
Approved Methods Of Carcass Disposal
- The on-farm disposal methods approved by the BC Agricultural Waste Control Regulation include composting, incineration and burial. Burial is only an accepted on-farm disposal practice in areas with low rainfall and suitable ground water tables. In addition, utilization of a pick-up service for centralized disposal options such as rendering, composting or incineration are acceptable practices provided that the receiver is certified to deal with mortalities and has all relevant permits in place for the centralized facility.
Proper Carcass Storage And Composting
- Compost should be conducted in a manner to ensure proper composting temperatures are attained and full and rapid decomposition of carcasses occurs. The compost should be checked for proper internal operating temperature (40 – 60 degrees Celsius) twice per week.
Carcasses should be covered or placed in a secure container, which does not allow escape of feathers or organic matter, immediately after collection and not be left exposed to the environment. If disposal does not occur immediately after the collection of mortalities the dead stock should be intermittently stored in an approved manner. The approved storage methods are:
- impermeable covered storage bins if the storage period is short;
- freezing in sealed bags for longer storage periods.
- Mortalities should be stored inside the Controlled Access Zone (CAZ) and away from water or feed sources.
- Feeding carcasses to scavengers is disallowed under biosecurity standards. It is very important that carcasses be kept in an enclosure that prevents access by any scavengers, pets, rodents or wildlife.
Proper Manure Storage
- θManure should be stored and covered as far away from the bird holding area as possible. Proper manure composting will significantly reduce the pathogen load as high temperatures are generated by the fermentation process.
Proper Manure Transportation
- It is really important to try to ensure that manure transporters observe all trucking biosecurity protocols, since vehicles can potentially transmit poultry pathogens.
All vehicles and equipment used to handle manure should be washed and disinfected prior to re-entering the farm gate. Vehicles can potentially transmit poultry pathogens when manure containing disease agents is adhered to tires or the vehicle frame. The majority of poultry pathogens are spread by contaminated vehicles and the movement of people.
- Employees and owner operators should wear coveralls and boots designated for specifically for hauling manure. They should not resume farm duties until they have washed their hands and/or showered, and are wearing clean clothing and boots.